Basic English Structure
Verb Forms 動詞形式

The Infinitive 不定式
The infinitive is the form of the verb which begins with to followed by the simple form of the verb. You cannot add -s, -es, -ed, or -ing to the end. The infinitive can be used with or without to.
---For example:
不定式動詞形式以 'to' 開始,之後跟原形式之動詞,動詞不能加-s, -es, -ed, or –ing,不定式可有或沒有 'to'。

To-infinitive 有 'to' 不定式
Bare infinitive (without to) 冇 'to' 不定式
I helped her to open the door.
I helped her open the door.

1. Verbs followed by the infinitive 接不定式之動詞
--- afford, agree, appear, arrange, decide, fail, happen, hope, manage, offer, promise, prove, refuse, seem
----have to, ought to, used to, would like to, going to

---e.g. He decided to go home by bus.
---------We hope to pass the exam.
---------I refused to pay the bill.
---------He used to live in Sha Tin.
---------You ought to be kind to animals.

2. Verbs followed by the object + infinitive construction 接賓語+不定式結構之動詞
----believe, cause, encourage, force, get, invite, know, order, request, teach, tell, warn
---e.g. I invited Betty to my birthday party.
---------Miss Wong asked Tom to clean the blackboard.
---------Our teachers encourage us to work hard.

3. The infinitive is used after some adjectives, too + adjective, adjective + enough, so + adjective + as, only + to-constructions. 某些形容詞接不定式
---e.g. It is nice to have a cup of coffee.
---------She is too frightened to say anything.
---------Would you be kind enough to turn on the fan?
-------- He was so foolish as to lend her the money.
---------We hurried to the railway station only to find that the train had left.

4. The bare infinitive (without to) is used after shall, should, will, would, must, can, may, do 輔助動詞後用沒有 'to' 的不定式
---e.g. Students must wear school uniforms.
---------She didn't sleep well last night.
--------- I will remember what you have said.

5. The bare infinitive is used after verbs of perception: see, hear, smell, feel, notice, watch, observe and after make, let
知覺動詞及 'make' 'let' ’後用沒有 '’to' 的不定式
---e.g.She saw him break the window.
-------- I heard her play the piano.
-------- His words made her cry.
-------- I will let her use my car.

6. The bare infinitive is used after had better, had/would rather, had/would sooner, cannot but
---e.g.You had better tell the truth.
-------- I would rather have tea than coffee.
-------- I cannot but agree to come.

Exercise 1
I. The infinitive or the bare infinitive

The Gerund 動名詞
The gerund is the verb form ending in -ing. It functions as a noun.動名詞是有 'ing' 形式的動詞,而作名詞用。
---e.g. She enjoys listening to music.
-------- He admitted breaking the window.
-------- We suggested going to Yuen Long.

1. Gerunds are used after the following verbs and expressions: 以下動詞和詞語後用動名詞
----admit, avoid, cannot help, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, mind, practise, resist,
----suggest, is worth, feel like, look forward to, it is no use
---e.g. She cannot help crying.
--- -- ---He considered changing my job.
--------- Would you mind answering a few questions?
--------- The food is not worth eating.
--------- It is no use crying over spilt milk.
2. Use gerunds after prepositions: 介詞後用動名詞
---e.g. The doctor told him to give up smoking.
--------- You need good shoes for walking on the hills.
--------- After having made a decision, she told her parents.

3. Some verbs are followed by either the infinitive or the gerund without much difference in meaning: advise, attempt, begin,-cease, continue, intend, plan, propose 某些動詞後可用不定式或動名詞而意思沒有多大分。
---e.g. We are attempting to climb the Lion Rock.
--------- I attempted walking until I fell over.

4. There can be a difference in meaning when the infinitive or the gerund is used after some verbs. In general, we use the gerund for ----habits or past actions, the infinitive for present or future events. These verbs are: dislike, forget, forget, hate, like, love, prefer, -regret, remember.
---e.g. Don't forget to lock the door when you leave. (future action)
--------- I forgot taking the pill yesterday. (past action)
--------- She likes to live in England when she retires next year. (future action)
--------- I like watching television. (habit)
--------- I regret to tell you that you have not been selected. (present action)
--------- I regret missing the great show. (past action)

5. After the verbs of perception, see, hear, smell, feel, notice, watch, observe, either the infinitive or the gerund can be used. -When using the infinitive, we are more interested in the completed action. When using the gerund, we are more interested in the -progress of the action.
---e.g. I heard him come in last night (so I know that he did come in).
---------I heard him coming in last night (and he made a lot of noise).
---------I saw him work in the garden yesterday (so I know he did work here yesterday).
---------I saw him working in the garden yesterday (and noticed how interested he was in it).

Gerund or Infinitive ?


Exercise 2
I.Infinitive or Gerund 1
II.Infinitive or Gerund 2

Basic English Structure