Basic English Structure
Verb Forms ¤¤­^ĒŠ

The Infinitive
The infinitive is the form of the verb which begins with to followed by the simple form of the verb. You cannot add -s, -es, -ed, or -ing to the end. The infinitive can be used with or without to.
---For example:

Bare infinitive (without to)
I helped her to open the door.
I helped her open the door.

1. Verbs followed by the infinitive
--- afford, agree, appear, arrange, decide, fail, happen, hope, manage, offer, promise, prove, refuse, seem
----have to, ought to, used to, would like to, going to

---e.g. He decided to go home by bus.
---------We hope to pass the exam.
---------I refused to pay the bill.
---------He used to live in Sha Tin.
---------You ought to be kind to animals.

2. Verbs followed by the object + infinitive construction
----believe, cause, encourage, force, get, invite, know, order, request, teach, tell, warn
---e.g. I invited Betty to my birthday party.
---------Miss Wong asked Tom to clean the blackboard.
---------Our teachers encourage us to work hard.

3. The infinitive is used after some adjectives, too + adjective, adjective + enough, so + adjective + as, only + to -----------------------constructions.
---e.g. It is nice to have a cup of coffee.
---------She is too frightened to say anything.
---------Would you be kind enough to turn on the fan?
-------- He was so foolish as to lend her the money.
---------We hurried to the railway station only to find that the train had left.

4. The bare infinitive (without to) is used after shall, should, will, would, must, can, may, do
---e.g. Students must wear school uniforms.
---------She didn't sleep well last night.
--------- I will remember what you have said.

5. The bare infinitive is used after verbs of perception: see, hear, smell, feel, notice, watch, observe and after make, let
---e.g.She saw him break the window.
-------- I heard her play the piano.
-------- His words made her cry.
-------- I will let her use my car.

6. The bare infinitive is used after had better, had/would rather, had/would sooner, cannot but
---e.g.You had better tell the truth.
-------- I would rather have tea than coffee.
-------- I cannot but agree to come.

Exercise 1
I. The infinitive or the bare infinitive

The Gerund
The gerund is the verb form ending in -ing. It functions as a noun.
---e.g. She enjoys listening to music.
-------- He admitted breaking the window.
-------- We suggested going to Yuen Long.

1. Gerunds are used after the following verbs and expressions:
----admit, avoid, cannot help, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, mind, practise, resist,
----suggest, is worth, feel like, look forward to, it is no use
---e.g. She cannot help crying.
--- -- ---He considered changing my job.
--------- Would you mind answering a few questions?
--------- The food is not worth eating.
--------- It is no use crying over spilt milk.
2. Use gerunds after prepositions:
---e.g. The doctor told him to give up smoking.
--------- You need good shoes for walking on the hills.
--------- After having made a decision, she told her parents.

3. Some verbs are followed by either the infinitive or the gerund without much difference in meaning: advise, attempt, begin,---- ---------cease, continue, intend, plan, propose
---e.g. We are attempting to climb the Lion Rock.
--------- I attempted walking until I fell over.

4. There can be a difference in meaning when the infinitive or the gerund is used after some verbs. In general, we use the gerund for ----habits or past actions, the infinitive for present or future events. These verbs are: dislike, forget, forget, hate, like, love, prefer, ----regret, remember.
---e.g. Don't forget to lock the door when you leave. (future action)
--------- I forgot taking the pill yesterday. (past action)
--------- She likes to live in England when she retires next year. (future action)
--------- I like watching television. (habit)
--------- I regret to tell you that you have not been selected. (present action)
--------- I regret missing the great show. (past action)

5. After the verbs of perception, see, hear, smell, feel, notice, watch, observe, either the infinitive or the gerund can be used. ---------When using the infinitive, we are more interested in the completed action. When using the gerund, we are more interested in the ------progress of the action.
---e.g. I heard him come in last night (so I know that he did come in).
---------I heard him coming in last night (and he made a lot of noise).
---------I saw him work in the garden yesterday (so I know he did work here yesterday).
---------I saw him working in the garden yesterday (and noticed how interested he was in it).

Gerund or Infinitive ?


Exercise 2
I.Infinitive or Gerund 1
II.Infinitive or Gerund 2

Basic English Structure